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The 12 greatest scientists of all time


Engineering is fundamentally different from science, but one cannot exist without the other.

Science starts from a physical system and tries to develop a descriptive model.

While engineering tries to develop a physical system from a descriptive model.

So these domains are different, but they intersect.

It is not surprising, then, that scientists are the originators of the most commonly used principles in engineering.

Among them, who are the  greatest of all time? We have compiled a list of the 12 most famous inventors.

The 12 greatest scientists of all time

Greatest scientist: Albert Einstein

How to talk about the greatest scientists without mentioning him in this list?

Considered the father of relativity, Einstein introduced the first relativistic equations in 1905.

He was then 26 years old and worked for a patent office in Bern.

His theories and discoveries in the field of physics multiplied over the decades.

He is the one who was able to explain the Brownian motion of molecules.

He contributed to the development of quantum theory and explored the thermal properties of light at low radiation density.

His theories were used in the foundation of the theory of light photons.

Einstein received a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921 for his explanation of the photoelectric effect.

But he would have deserved a hundred more!

Without Einstein's contribution, no physicist, in the whole world would have accomplished anything.

Famous philosopher: Aristotle

Aristotle is first scientist known as a philosopher: a master of rhetoric and logic.

But he also contributed greatly to the field of science.

He mastered biology, zoology, political science, physics and even metaphysics.

He was known for his collection of plants and animal specimens.

This helped him to establish his theory of the chain of life.

Much of his work has not been preserved.

Greatest mathematician: Archimedes

He is considered one of the greatest mathematicians of all time, but he was also a physicist, astronomer, inventor and weapons designer.

Archimedes contributed to the field of science by creating the laws of levers and pulleys.

By discovering one of the most essential concepts in physics called the center of gravity.

By calculating the most accurate value of pi before the invention of electronic calculators.

By proving the formulas for the volume and surface area of a sphere and designing a device to pull water out of the ground.

By showing how exponents can be used to write larger numbers, and explaining the concept of buoyancy and other concepts of hydrostatics.

Greatest artist: Leonardo da Vinci

Leonardo da Vinci became interested in science when he was a 17-year-old apprentice painter, and used it to improve his paintings.

This artistic work gradually became a scientific career in its own right.

Despite his lack of education in the subject, Leonardo managed to become an inventor, even if he only gained recognition from his peers posthumously.

He even imagined tanks and helicopters centuries before they were invented!

Greatest Italian scientist: Galileo

This Italian scientist and academician made crucial observations that greatly contributed to the birth of modern astronomy and physics.

His work on the telescope was the most revolutionary.

Discovering that the Earth orbited the Sun - and not the other way around - his discoveries earned him fierce opposition from the Church.


Galileo also contributed to the science of motion, including the formulation of inertia, the law of falling bodies, and parabolic trajectories.

His research on the solidity of materials also advanced the scientific world.

Greatest English physicist: Isaac Newton

One of the most revolutionary scientists of all time is an English physicist and mathematician.

As you probably know, Isaac Newton is the genius behind the law of gravity.

He also developed the three laws of motion in mechanics, infinitesimal calculus and the discovery of the components of white light.

Newton laid down an important part of modern science.

Most of his theories remained valid until the advent of quantum physics and the theories of relativity.


English chemist: Michael Faraday

This English chemist and physicist is known for his experiments with electricity and magnetism.

These experiments led to the introduction of concepts such as magnetic lines of force, which are now commonplace in modern physics.

He also demonstrated the principle of induction, which was later used to create the dynamo and the generator.

Scientist Woman with Nobel: Marie Curie

One of the most famous scientists in history, Marie Curie became the first woman to win a Nobel Prize in physics in 1903.

Also, she is the first to win a Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1911.

Her research in radioactivity, as well as her discovery of radium and polonium, was the basis for modern methods of radiography.

Her research contributed greatly to many inventions and discoveries.

Greatest French chemist: Louis Pasteur

This French chemist and microbiologist is one of the founders and the famous scientists of medical microbiology.

He is known for creating pasteurization, a process where bacteria are destroyed.

He discovered this process after finding that microbes were responsible for the acidification of alcohol.

His work on germs also led to the creation of vaccines for anthrax and rabies.

Greatest innovation of Alan Turing

The field of artificial intelligence and computer science would never have been possible without the work of Alan Turing.

Turing proved in 1936 that there is no universal algorithmic method for determining the truth in mathematics.

Mathematics always contains undecidable propositions.

But it is his famous machine, ancestor of the first computers, which opened the way to the calculation and the calculability that we know today.

Greatest Scottish physicist: Clerk Maxwell

This Scottish physicist is known for his formulation of the theory of electromagnetism.

It is by starting from the work of Michael Faraday that he arrived there.

Maxwell's work and his famous equations contributed to Einstein's theory of relativity.

Einstein himself praised them.

Greatest pioneer of electrical field: Tesla

Considered by many to be the father of electrical engineering, Nikola Tesla had no traditional scientific education.

But nevertheless made a significant contribution to the scientific world.

He developed the alternating electric current system, the rotating magnetic field, and invented the Tesla coil.

These discoveries are still in use today.

Tesla is also known for his legendary conflict with Thomas Edison, another pioneer of electrical engineering, who favored direct current over alternating current.

This conflict prompted him to found his own laboratory, where he worked on X-rays, electrical resonance and much more.

However, despite all his work, Tesla died in poverty, having no business sense.

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